Melodies are made up of notes, in much the same way that lyrics are made from words. But like lyrics, it's how the notes are connected that is the trick. The way notes are joined together varies with the space (intervals) and time (rhythm) between notes. An interval is just the musical distance, or height if you like, between two notes or pitches. If you want to get from one note to another , you can go up or down or stay where you are. For example, in Somewhere Over the Rainbow, there is an interval of eight notes ( an octave) between 'Some' and 'Where', and because you go up in pitch, it's an ascending interval. But in Born Free, the interval between 'Born' and 'Free' is four notes and the melody goes down at the point, making it a descending fourth.
Some songs are instantly recognisable from the intervals they use. Some, like these examples, purely at a two note level. Intervals really start to invest music with a powerful emotive pull - it's no coincidence that these two particular songs were also extremely successful movie theme tunes. It makes sense for songwriters to work more actively with melodic intervals and see the impact it can have on making a fantastic unforgettable melody. There are a number of charts out there on the internet that are a good starting point to prompt you to try something you mightn't naturally use in your melody making, although I gotta say my favourite ascending minor second is still the theme to Jaws!
The issue is not so much whether you know all the technical terms for the intervals although yes, it's helpful to communicate but that you, (yes, you!) can use them freely. You can create leaps and bounds within your songs to enhance and emphasise the direction and contour of your melody and to underline the lyrical message you want to get across. Most of you will write reasonably naturally in steps and skips - the smaller intervals where there are differences of two or three notes and that's great for an easily singable contour, but using a leap or a drop of a fourth or greater can really send your song on its way. Don't worry if you can't sing it - play it! Don't worry too much if you can't notate it. Record your ideas on your phone and stitch it together from there!
More importantly, bring your ears into play. I found this great audio example list compiled by Ashley Evelyn Mazur. The examples are contemporary but she performs the intervals so you can tune in and then recognise them within the song examples. Enjoy!
Talk more soon.
ps if you'd like to incorporate more practical tips and techniques into your songwriting, join us at the Wanaka Songwriters Clinic this coming Labour Weekend 19-21 October.
Hi, I'm Charlotte Yates and I can help you get better at writing songs.